Citation Guidelines / User Agreement

The data in the Human Life-Table Database (HLD) are provided free of charge to all interested users. However, we ask that you kindly observe the following requests and restrictions:

  1. In all published work and presentations, please acknowledge the HLD as the source of the data and provide our complete URL: In formal publications, it may be appropriate to state the original source(s) of the data as well (see documentation herein); in such cases, however, please be sure to acknowledge the HLD as the intermediary.

  2. Please do not pass your copy of these data to other users. Rather refer them to the HLD website, where they may download the data for themselves. Since these data will be updated frequently (including corrections as we discover them), this practice will help to avoid the existence of multiple outdated or incorrect versions.

  3. Please inform us about any problem you encounter using the data. Your comments will be greatly appreciated.